What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region.Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, and used their military prowess to raid their neighbors.The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into formerly Kalanga areas.The first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824.This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, and seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe.During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari.Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago.The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Bushmen (San) and Khoi peoples.
Following the Great Trek, Afrikaners from the Cape Colony established themselves on the borders of Botswana in the Transvaal.
The economy is dominated by mining, cattle, and tourism.
Botswana boasts a GDP (purchasing power parity) per capita of about ,825 per year as of 2015 Its high gross national income (by some estimates the fourth-largest in Africa) gives the country a relatively high standard of living and one of the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa.
Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
Formerly one of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies.