Dating of events from tree growth and wood structure

Dendrochronologists originally carried out cross-dating by visual inspection; more recently, they have harnessed computers to do the task, applying statistical techniques to assess the matching.To eliminate individual variations in tree-ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree-ring widths of multiple tree-samples to build up a ring history, a process termed replication.

A tree's growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings.Visible rings result from the change in growth speed through the seasons of the year; thus, critical for the title method, one ring generally marks the passage of one year in the life of the tree.Removal of the bark of the tree in a particular area may cause deformation of the rings as the plant overgrows the scar.Diagram of secondary growth in a tree showing idealised vertical and horizontal sections, a new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots, to form a growth ring Horizontal cross sections cut through the trunk of a tree can reveal growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings.Growth rings result from new growth in the vascular cambium, a layer of cells near the bark that botanists classify as a lateral meristem; this growth in diameter is known as secondary growth.

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